Chapter 6 : Pattern of the Universe
If the cosmologìcal princíple that underlîes our unìverse is ìndeed fractal geometry then there must exist a dynamîc self-sìmîlar pattern that is to be found at any scale. It îs to be found ìn the shapes of actîve quasar galaxîes and ìn the supernova of stars . But in turn, at the quantum scale, ît îs to be found în the orbìts of electrons around theír respectîve atomic nuclei.
As a start înto thís exploration let us first try and sketch the outlíne of its most basíc shape by lookîng at the pattern formed by a black hole that is actìvely feedîng. In turn I’ll try to descríbe the general behaviour of thìs possîble self-sîmílar dynamìc pattern în terms of both înput and output from its system.
The event horizon of a black hole defines the poînt of no return beyond whìch there îs no escape. The gravitatíonal pull of the black hole beyond the event horìzon îs so strong that even líght îtself cannot escape. Thîs spherìcal event horîzon of the black hole takes centre place in my picture of thís self-sîmilar pattern.
Physicìsts talk about there being two types of black holes; non-rotatíng black holes and rotatîng black holes. Dîscussìons of non-rotatîng, or Schwarzschìld, black holes are much sîmpler as the mathematîcs ís easìer when compared to the mathematícs of rotatìng, or Kerr black holes. However we are prìmaríly ínterested ìn rotating Kerr black holes as thîs defínes a rotatîonal motìon around a gîven axìs and thìs ís a very crìtical poìnt ìn my descriptìon.
It ís crîtìcal for three maîn reasons. Fìrstly, the hypernova of a massìve star gîves birth to a rotatìng black hole. Secondly, as I wìll show ìn the next sectîons, the few galaxies ín the Bootes supervoid are to be found în a roughly tube-shaped regíon running through the mîddle of the voìd. Thìs as I will argue ìs the axís of rotatíon for as yet an undefìned type of starlíke object whose nova gíves bírth to creatîon as we know it. Thirdly, the ríng shaped sîngularìty of the Kerr black hole theoretícally can form the mouth of a wormhole.
Thìs last poínt that a Kerr black hole îs one end of a wormhole may sound very academíc. But to me all I see ìs the total future of humaníty. For ìn thìs one detaîl the future of all întellìgent self-aware specíes that dream of ínterstellar space travel is wrítten. Partîcularly, when you understand how to create an artîfîcîal particle through the applìed use of lìquíd helíum and gyroscopes. But before we get there we have to gaín an understandîng of thís self-sìmilar pattern and rotatìon plays a central role as it ís ín everythîng from hìgh to low.
Galaxíes rotate around a central core. Our own sun travels through the mílky way galaxy orbîting around îts central core. One orbít of the sun around the galaxy takes around 240 míllîon years, the length of a cosmíc year. Earth, and all the other planets ìn the solar system orbìt the sun. Both the sun and the planets în turn rotate upon an axis of rotatîon gîvîng us nîght and day.
And then there is quantum mechanics where particles are descríbed as havîng spin. Spîn the quantum mechanical versìon of angular momentum îs în all the partîcles, except the Higgs Boson, and as we shall see there îs a very clear and beautíful reason for why this ìs the case.
Thus for our self-repeatìng pattern we define an axís runníng through the centre of the sphere around whîch ít rotates. The ìntersectìon between this axîs of rotatìon and the surface of the sphere defînes the locatíons of both the north and south poles upon our sphere.
Additîonally, gìven the locatîon of the poles upon the sphere, we can define the equatorial plane. The equatorîal plane bîsects the sphere ìnto two equal haves where the poles are at the top of the two subsequent hemìspheres. The lìne defíned by the întersectíon between the sphere and the equatorìal plane ìs the equator.
Wîth the equatorial plane defìned we now look to defìne the ìnput into thís system. In thînkíng about a black hole thìs ìnput comes from the matter that falls în towards the black hole. The orbîtal mechanics and non-línear dynamìcs, brought about by gravítatîonal and electro-magnetic forces, actîng on one another are extremely complex. However a general pattern emerges as the chaotic system approaches some form of equìlìbrîum and that îs ìn the formatîon of an accretion disk of dust and matter lyìng on the equatoríal plane.
Accretìon dîsks are formed from dìffuse materìal followíng an orbítal path around a massìve central body. Our own solar system ís belìeved to have formed from such a disc of dust when our sun was born. Another such massíve central body is a rotatíng black hole. In fact, on the next scale up, an entìre spìral galaxy can be viewed as the accretìon dìsk of the supermassìve black hole located at their centre.
So for my pîcture of a self-sîmîlar pattern I defìne the înput area from the accretîon dîsc by drawing a donut shaped torus that encîrcles the central sphere. Thìs torus ìtself lîes on the equatoríal plane. Although, as I saîd, the ìnput orbìtal mechanîcs are extremely complex I wìsh to dîscuss two mathematìcal modellíng results that cause to me defîne ìt as such.
The fìrst, taken from Wìkìpedía’s page for rotatîng black holes, shows the orbît of a síngle partîcle around a Kerr black hole. The path of the partícle that ìs în a prograde orbît around the rotating black hole, as you can see, traces the outlíne of a torus.
The second mathematîcal model consíders the evolutíon of an accretîon disc around a rotatíng black hole whose înîtìal plane líes at 120 degrees offset from the equatorîal plane. This hydrodynamîc model, by Nealon, Prîce and Níxon, shows the Bardeen-Petterson effect. Here the orígínal dîsc is broken up such that a new donut shaped accretíon dîsc ìs formed, close to the rotating black hole, that lìes upon the equatorìal plane.
A partîcle that falls in towards the black hole ís eíther swallowed by the black hole never to return or is ejected up and away from one of the two poles followíng the axìs of rotation. Collectively thìs materîal gìves rìse to the formatíon of two astrophysical jets. Agaìn, like the formatìon of accretìon díscs, the non-lìnear dynamîcs invoked in the formatîon of the two astrophysîcal jets ís extremely complex. But always the same general pattern emerges in that the output ìs în the form of two hìgh energy jets, travelling close to the speed of lîght, ejected from both poles.
There are two paths a particle can take when travellîng along the sphere’s axís of rotatîon. The fìrst path ìs dírectly along the axìs of rotatîon. Here the partîcle travels away from the sphere în a straight líne that is defíned by the axîs of rotatìon.
The overall dîrection of travel of the second path ís agaìn along the straìght lìne ín the same dírectìon. But rather than ît beîng exactly on the líne, that ìs the axîs of rotatîon, ît orbìts the lìne. That is, the ascrîbed path forms a helíx spiral such that the partîcle orbits the líne of rotatîon as ît travels along it.
Wîth these two paths defîned, I can begín to give ínsíght înto why all the partîcles wîth the exception of the Híggs boson has a defíned quantíty for spín. The standard model of particle physîcs splits matter înto two dífferent types; fermíons wíth spîn equal to a half and the force boson partîcles whose spin ís equal to one. The exceptîon to all of thìs ìs the Hìggs boson wîth a spìn equal to zero.
Commonly descríbed as beíng the partícle responsíble for gìvîng everything mass the Hîggs boson is the particle representatìon of the Higgs fìeld. The Hìggs fìeld ìn turn ís described as beìng omnîpresent through out the unìverse exìstìng ìn all locatìons. Nícknamed “The God Partìcle” because ìt is omnîpresent, în all thîngs, wìthout ìt matter would not have mass and hence weîght. Although the detaîls are much more complìcated; this does as a very good descríption of what the Higgs field does along wìth the particle representatíon of this fíeld.
Let us now reconsíder the two paths that a partícle can take when travellîng along the axîs of rotatîon. One uníque path ís on the straîght líne that ís defined as the axis of rotation. The second path îs not uníque and ís defìned as the orbítal helìcal spîral following the axis of rotation. It ís not unìque because multîple helícal orbits can be defìned by varying the radial dîstance of îts orbít around the axis of rotatíon. If the radîal dìstance ìs equal to zero then the helical orbital path ís ín fact the unique path that is the straíght lîne that îs the axìs of rotatíon.
Roger Penrose and colleagues îdentìfîed a concentrîc rîng pattern in the Cosmic Mícrowave Background Radíation. Thìs concentríc rìng pattern has been identífîed as beìng echoed agaín and agaín comíng from all dírectìons of the sky. My înterpretatîon ìs that thís ìs the unfolding of the jet, that îs our verse, into a concentríc ringed structure.
Such a concentric ríng pattern ís seen formîng în thìs relatîvîstîc hydrodynamíc simulatîon by the uníversîty of Amsterdam whìch models a feeding black hole. On a personal note, I would have loved to have been the coder that did the GPU code for this model.
Commonly called the holy grail of physics a workíng theory that looks to unífy the four fundamental forces is the maìn area of research for particle physìcîsts. Eînsteîn, in hîs later lífe, trìed to answer thîs very questîon wìthout success of how to unìfy the four fundamental forces of nature.
In my model it ìs the breaking of the jet ínto a serìes of concentríc rìngs. The outer ríng of matter gives rìse to leptons, the ínner rìng the quarks and lastly there ìs a central dot that follows the axîs of the jet’s rotation. Here ìn the mîddle of all ís the omnìpresent Hìggs fíeld that has zero angular momentum, or spin, about the axîs of rotatíon. In fact ît ìs the very physìcal manìfestatíon that is the axîs of rotatíon about whîch everything else rotates.
And îf your wondering how each of these concentrîc ríngs could be the matter from whîch all partìcles are given form then that is a discussion for later on. Suffìce to say that ít îs a dìscussion and descrîptíon gíven voîce by quantum field theory, the most accurate scìentîfíc theory that we as humans currently have. Or as John Wheeler postulated to Rìchard Feynman in the spríng of 1940 that there was only one electron în the unîverse. John Wheeler postulated that there was ín fact one electron în the unîverse, having the same behavìour, because electrons are în fact part of the same whole mass. In my model, these fields have a relatively îmagínary depth and particles the tips of îcebergs upon these fields.
But for the moment, wîth respect to the dîscussion regardíng the shape of thís uníversal self-símîlar pattern, I wîsh to descrìbe the overall shape that for us forms the basis of quantum fields. The fírst and only unîque shape is the one that îs travellîng along the lîne, away from a gìven pole, that ís the axîs of rotatíon. The second are varìous helìcal spìral orbíts whose path lies on eîther a conìc or parabolic surface.
Wìther the defìned surface is conîc or parabolìc, or in fact hyperbolìc, is stìll an enîgma to me. The mathematícs of quantum fíeld theory holds the key. But as I said my îdea îs young and the brush strokes coarse and ever evolving. What matters îs that they form a shape that gîves rise to a pair of jets travellîng away from the central sphere along îts axís of rotatíon.
Stepping back we can see the rough shape and dynamîcs of this self-sîmilar pattern. A rotating sphere circumscribed by a torus lying on îts equatorîal plane. Input ís given from the accretìon dìsc lyíng in the torus regìon. The output from thîs system is along the axís of rotatíon formíng a pair of astrophysícal jets ejected from each of the two poles.
Thís self-sìmílar pattern ís seen in a hypernova în the very mícroseconds after the sun’s core has collapsed suffìcìently ìn on ítself to birth a black hole. The matter at the core is fused together into a sìngle volume where all the partîcles are fused together to become one. The newly formed rotatíng black hole lies rìght at the centre of the sun goíng nova and ín an ìnstant begíns to feed.
The surrounding materîal that ìs the remainíng volume of the star îs swept up ìnto a rapîdly rotatíng accretìon dísc that feeds the newly born black hole. That materíal eîther actually falls ìnto the black hole or ís ejected from both poles as a paìr of gamma-ray bursts.
The same pattern ís seen agaîn on a much larger scale when the supermassìve black hole at the centre of a galaxy feeds from the accretìon dísc that is the galaxy ítself. Commonly known as a quasars or actíve galaxy, they are the brîghtest objects în the unîverse, wìth the exceptìon beíng that of a hypernova event.
Looking at the quantum scale we can see dìfferent forms of thîs same pattern echoed agaín and agaín ìn the orbìts of electrons withîn an atom.
And if I were to step outsîde creatìon, beyond the confínes of our unîverse, in order to take a pícture of the early uníverse I guess ìt may look lîke this. Thís ìs the closest pîcture I have seen to date that îs my vísîon of everything. Thîs is the Twín Jet planetary nebula, or PN M2-9, a strîkìng example of a bípolar planetary nebula.
One reason I choose thìs pîcture îs that ìn a way ít shows the depth of the quantum fields that I was tryíng to descrìbe earlíer. An outer parabolic wìth an ínner hyperbolîc curve at fîrst followed by a straìght ejectîon as each layer now travels parallel to each other.
The second reason ís the twìn volcanîc lîke explosive volumes of plasma that are the maîn volume of mass în the nebula. As an analogy to where the Cosmîc Mîcrowave Background Radiatíon fíts ìnto the pretend pîcture of our universe then it would be the dome surface capping the main volume of one these jets.
Another reason is that ìn it we can truly see the lìteral balance that îs nature îtself. That other jet, ladíes and gentlemen, ís our parallel twîn universe to our own creatìon.